Biogenics Goat Cheese: Biogenic Amines in Probiotic Fermented Cow and Goat Milks

Biogenics Goat Cheese

The presence of biogenic amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine) in probiotic fermented cow and goat milks was evaluated during the first 10 days of chilling storage (4 + 2 degC), when the viability of the probiotic strains is highest. Sensory tests and microbial analyses were also carried out.

Surgical wounds of CL-positive sheep and goats treated with iodine developed purulent secretions in 28% observations, whereas these were observed in only 5% of the AgNP ointment-treated animals.

Product Description

We have compared the profile of biogenic amines during ripening of goat cheeses made with pasteurized milk and those manufactured using pressurized milk. The amines studied were tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. In the cheeses prepared with pasteurized milk, histidine was formed through decarboxylation by clostridia while in the presseurized cheeses histamine was formed by enterococci. High-pressure treatment provokes more proteolysis than pasteurization and may increase the availability of precursors for biogenic amine formation. This was reflected in the similar concentrations of the amines in both cheeses.


BIO-Genics, LLC is a provider of quality caprine artificial insemination semen and products. It does not control the manner by which or circumstances under which this semen and product are applied, nor does it make any guaranties or representations regarding the conception rate, breed purity of sire or quality of product to be obtained. AI clinics are taught all over the United States “on-location” at individual farms, Universities and clubs.


Biogenic amines have gained a high importance in the field of food quality evaluation and in the identification of their origins. In the last decade, a drastic multiplication of scientific publications dealing with this subject has been observed. Biogenic amines are formed by microorganisms during cheese manufacture, ripening and storage. They are known to affect cheese texture and flavor as well as to influence the development of microorganisms involved in ripening and shelf life. They also contribute to the color and aroma of the cheese.


Biogenic amines (BA) are naturally occurring organic molecules of low molecular weight and generally have no toxic effects. They are formed mainly by the breakdown of proteins and have been reported in cheese as possible indicators of freshness and quality.

Polyamines are natural amines of non-microbial origin and are found at lower concentrations in cheese than other BA of bacterial origin. However, their levels may increase during ripening due to lactic acid bacteria activity [10].

Novella-Rodriguez et al., observed that surgical wounds of goats treated with AgNP ointment healed in an average of 18 days, whereas those of control goats treated with 10% iodine took over 23 days.

A series of HHP treatments was applied to two artisanal varieties of cheese made with raw milk from ewe and goats in Spain, to study the effects of these conditions on the development of microbial populations and BA contents during ripening. In both cheeses, the application of HHP reduced significantly lactoccocci and lactobacilli counts. The HHP treatment at 400 MPa at 2 degC caused a decrease in BA formation, being tyramine and putrescine the most affected BA after ripening in goats’ cheeses, and tyramine and CA in ewes’ cheeses.


In order to be employed in food fermentation processes, the LAB strains used must be safe for human consumption. Likewise, they should not be able to transfer antibiotic resistance genes and must not cause disease in humans or other animals. A deep research evaluation needs to be performed for the safety features of each selected LAB strain.

Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in the production of fermented foods, their probiotic potential has received less attention. However, some LAB isolated from goat milk show potentially probiotic characteristics in terms of safety and functionality, such as resistance to GIT-simulated conditions, exopolysaccharide production and antimicrobial activity against the bacterium S. mutans, which is recurrent in oral pathologies such as caries.

In addition, it has been demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria from goat milk can produce biogenic amines in cheese during the ripening process. The concentration of these substances is an important quality indicator for the product. A new method based on ion-pair HPLC with postcolumn o-phthalaldehyde derivatization has been developed for the quantitative determination of nine biogenic amines in cheese.

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